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APA (7th ed.) referencing guide (Online): Statistics & Datasets

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

Statistics and Derived Data

When you use numeric datasets or a prepared statistical table you must cite where you retrieved the information. Increasingly you will find yourself using data derived from other data elements.  Databases often allow users to aggregate data.  This requires you to cite using the Derived Data format. Examples of both are listed below.

NB: Date of retrieval is not normally required for datasets.  However if the information is likely to change, it is recommended to include this information.

In-text: A single dataset

Example:

Financial Analysis Made Easy (2018) demonstrate that...
OR
...(Financial Analysis Made Easy, 2018).

Example:
According to the Office for National Statistics (2018)...

OR
...(Office for National Statistics, 2018).

In-text: Derived Data

Financial Analysis Made Easy (2018) shows that...

OR

...(Financial Analysis Made Easy, 2018).

Reference List: A single dataset

Corporate author. (Year). Title of dataset. Database name. URL

Examples

Financial Analysis Made Easy. (2018). John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Company financial data. http://fame2.bvdep.com/


Office for National Statistics. (2018). Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: Mid-2017. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/
populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/mid2017

Reference List: Derived Data

Corporate author. (Year). Data derived from: Title of dataset. Database name. URL 

Example

Financial Analysis Made Easy. (2018). Data derived from: Construction companies in Wales with a turnover exceeding £10,000. http://fame2.bvdep.com/