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APA (7th ed.) referencing guide (Online): Personal Communication

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

Personal Communication

Personal communications such as emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, online chats or direct messages, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures do not provide recoverable data and are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in the text as follows: 

S. Hillcoat-Nalletamby (personal communication, June 3, 2020) or 

(S. Hillcoat-Nalletamby, personal communication, June 3, 2020) 

Use a personal communication citation only when a recoverable source is not available. For example, if you learned about a topic via a classroom lecture, it would be preferable to cite the research on which the academic based the lecture. 

In text citations

S. Hillcoat-Nalletamby (personal communication, August 26, 2020)...


...(S. Hillcoat-Nalletamby, personal communication, August 26, 2020) 

Reference list

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.