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APA (7th ed.) referencing guide (Online): In-text citations

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

In-text citations

APA is an author-date style where references are cited in-text, and then listed in an alphabetical reference list at the end of your assignment. In-text citation requires that the last name of the author and the year of publication be inserted into the text.

It can be difficult to identify the author of a webpage from an organisational or government website, the organisation or government agency is considered the author, unless otherwise specified.

One author

In-text citation requires that the last name of the author and the year of publication be inserted into the text.

Example:

Nakley (2015) states that...
OR
...(Nakley, 2015).

Example:

Lee (2021) claims that...
OR
...(Lee, 2021).

Two authors

If there are two authors of a work, both should be cited.

Example:

McMillan and Weyers (2011) state that...
OR
...(McMillan & Weyers, 2011).

Note: Link the two authors’ names with and when cited outside parentheses. Link with an ampersand (&) inside parentheses. 

Three or more authors

If there are three or more authors of a work only the first author should be cited followed by et al. and the date

Example:

According to McDuff et al. (2017)....
OR
...(McDuff et al., 2017).

Organisation as author

If a reference has a group author, the name can sometimes be abbreviated.  Abbreviate in the text only if it is conventional and if the reader is more familiar with the abbreviation than with the expanded form or if considerable space can be saved.

Example:

First citation:

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2018) states that...
OR
...(World Health Organization (WHO), 2018).

Subsequent citations:

WHO (2018) states that...
OR
...(WHO, 2018).

Note: A good tip if you are going to use the same citation a few times in your assignment is to use acronyms.  You must explain the acronym in full the first time you use it, followed by the acronym so it is clear to your lecturer what is stands for.