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Vancouver referencing guide (Online): Available from

Mae’r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

Location Details

There are a few rules around what location to give when using Available from:

If there is a doi available then always use the doi.

If using a doi, begin with “doi” followed by a colon and a space e.g.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pctr.0010009

Do not put any punctuation marks after the doi.

If there is no doi then follow the guidance below.

flow chart

From a full-text database

Journals in full text databases are usually not free on the internet but are purchased on subscription by the Library.  If no doi is available, the database name and internet address are cited as the url would not take the reader to the item.

Do not put any punctuation marks after the url

From the internet

Unlike journal articles from full text databases, these are often freely available on the internet.  If there is no doi then the url should be given.

Where possible the url should not be shortened. Do not put any punctuation marks after the url