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Vancouver referencing guide (Online): Epubs or ‘online first’ articles

Mae’r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

E-pubs/Online First Articles

These articles are published online before appearing in print or being given a volume and issue number. There is also the possibility that they may be modified before final publication. It is therefore useful to acknowledge their status by putting Epub before the date of publication online, which for this should include the full date (year, month, day). Providing a DOI will also help the reader trace the article.

When citing Epubs and Online first articles after they have appeared in print and been allocated volume and issue numbers, you need to ensure that you are referencing the version of the article you read. If you want, you can add a note at the end of the reference to indicate that it was an Epub.


Authors(s). (Surname followed by initial(s)).

Article title.

Journal name [Internet].

Epub date  Year Month Date e.g. Epub 2019 Jul 24

 [cited Year Month Date];

Volume number if available

(Issue number): if available

Inclusive page number(s) of the article if available.

Available from:


Lotz M, Martel-Pelletier J, Christiansen C, Brandi M-L, Bruyère O, Chapurlat R, et al. Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases [Internet]. Epub 2013 Jul 29 [cited 2013 Jul 30]. Available from: doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203726

Lillegraven S, Kristiansen IS, Kvien TK. Comparison of utility measures and their relationship with other health status measures in 1041 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases [Internet]. Epub 2010 May 10 [cited 2013 Jul 29];69(10):1762-7. Available from: doi: 10.1136/ard.2009.124099