Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA (6th ed.) referencing guide (Online): Statistics & Datasets

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

Statistics and Derived Data

When you use numeric datasets or a prepared statistical table you must cite where you retrieved the information. Increasingly you will find yourself using data derived from other data elements.  Databases often allow users to aggregate data.  This requires you to cite using the Derived Data format. Examples of both are listed below.

NB: Date of retrieval is not normally required for datasets.  However if the information is likely to change, it is recommended to include this information.

In-text: A single dataset

Financial Analysis Made Easy (2018) demonstrate that...

OR

...(Financial Analysis Made Easy, 2018).
 

According to the Office for National Statistics (2020)....

OR

...(Office for National Statistics, 2020).

In-text: Derived Data

Financial Analysis Made Easy (2018) shows that...

OR

...(Financial Analysis Made Easy, 2018).

Reference List: A single dataset

Corporate author. (Year of publication). Title of dataset. Retrieved from URL

Examples

Financial Analysis Made Easy. (2018). John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Company financial data. Retrieved from http://fame2.bvdep.com/


Office for National Statistics. (2020). Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: Mid-2019. Retrieved from https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/

populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/mid2019estimates

Reference List: Derived Data

Corporate author. (Year of publication). Data derived from: Title of dataset. Retrieved from URL 

Example

Financial Analysis Made Easy. (2018). Data derived from: Construction companies in Wales with a turnover exceeding £10,000.

       Retrieved April 21, 2018, from http://fame2.bvdep.com/