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OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Pinpoints

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

Pinpointing text (referring to a specific page or paragraph)

A pinpoint is a reference to a specific paragraph of a judgment or page of a report which comes at the end of the citation. Usually, the pinpoint will be a page number but with judgments, especially with neutral citations, use a paragraph number instead. The paragraph number should be enclosed within square brackets [ ].

For Judgments & Reports:

  • If pinpointing to more than one paragraph, separate the paragraph numbers in square brackets with a comma.
  • If citing spans of paragraphs, insert a dash between the first and last paragraph being cited.

For other materials:

  •  Use pt when pinpointing a part, ch for chapter and para for paragraph.
  • If you are citing a chapter, part, paragraph or page number, insert a comma before the number.
  • If pinpointing more than on page number, separate them by commas.

Below are some examples of pinpointing.

Examples of pinpointing

Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45].

Bunt v Tilley [2006] EWCH 407 (QB), [2006] 3 All ER 336 [1] - [37].

Beattie v  E & F Beattie Ltd [1938] Ch 708 (CA) 720, 723.



Pinpointing is not used in the bibliography.

Examples of cases without pinpointing:

Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112

Beattie v E & F Beattie Ltd [1938] Ch 708 (CA) 720