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Biosciences: Referencing

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg

What do referencing styles look like?

APA (a Harvard type style)

In APA style there will be an author and date in your text like this: (Casey, 1985) and an alphabetical list of references at the end like this:

Casey, F. (1985). How to study: A practical guide. Macmillan.

Clare, J. (1988). Revision, study and exam techniques guide. First and Best.

Fairbairn, G., & Fairbairn, S. (2001). Reading at university: A guide for students. Open University Press.

Johnson, R. (1995). Improving your writing skills. Clifton Press.


Vancouver (a numeric style)

In Vancouver style there will be a number in brackets in your text [1] and a list of references at the end in the order they appear in the text, like this:

1. Casey F. How to study: a practical guide. Basingstoke Macmillan; 1985.

2. Clare J. Revision, study and exam techniques guide. Corby: First and Best; 1998.

3. Fairbairn G, Fairbairn S. Reading at university: a guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press: 2001.

4. Johnson R. Improve your writing skills. Manchester: Clifton Press; 1995.


Harvard referencing guides

Pears & Shields: Cite them right
A useful textbook with a good chapter on Harvard referencing. Print copies and ebook available.
Harvard guide from reliable web site (UCL)
This guide from University College London has a good range of reference types.
Journal of Ecology author guidelines
The web site for academic journals will have a page for authors describing their manuscript requirements, including the format for references. The Journal of Ecology style is often used in Biosciences.
• APA 7th referencing guide
APA is an author-date style which is fully supported by the University and can be used when Harvard referencing is required.
All guides to Harvard referencing are different: don't mix & match. Use only one guide for each piece of work.
Whichever guide you use, remember that Biosciences requires the names of all authors in each reference. Do not use "et al." in reference lists.

How to use EndNote



Mendeley allows you to collect, manage, share and use references you find in the course of your research. It can be used with Word to add citations and produce a reference list within a document. Mendeley has a web-based element that can be used with any Internet browser; however you need to use the desktop element to use the Citation PlugIn with Word. Mendeley is freely available.  Mendeley will:

  • share references with other Mendeley users
  • store full text PDFs within yur library and allow annotation
  • create bibliographies and 'cite while you write' (separate free plug-in required - not compatable with Word 365).

To find out more see the Mendeley libguide.


Zotero is a free open-source browser plugin.
Zotero library guide (an excellent tutorial by Jason Puckett: Georgia State University Library).

Avoiding plagiarism

Skills for learning, skills for life