Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Physics: Referencing

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg



This section contains guides to help with referencing. Referencing makes clear when you have used someone else's work and helps you to avoid plagiarism.

These are two of the university approved styles:

  • APA is a Harvard type style which uses the author name and date in your text and an alphabetical list at the end of your work.
  • Vancouver is a numeric style which gives each reference a number in your text then lists them in the order they appear at the end.

What do referencing styles look like?

APA (a Harvard type style)

In APA style there will be an author and date in your text like this: (Casey, 1985) and an alphabetical list of references at the end like this:

Casey, F. (1985). How to study: a practical guide. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Clare, J. (1988). Revision, study and exam techniques guide. Corby: First and Best.

Fairbairn, G., & Fairbairn, S. (2001). Reading at university: a guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Johnson, R. (1995). Improving your writing skills. Manchester: Clifton Press.


Vancouver (a numeric style)

In Vancouver style there will be a number in brackets in your text [1] and a list of references at the end in the order they appear in the text, like this:

1. Casey F. How to study: a practical guide. Basingstoke Macmillan; 1985.

2. Clare J. Revision, study and exam techniques guide. Corby: First and Best; 1998.

3. Fairbairn G, Fairbairn S. Reading at university: a guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press: 2001.

4. Johnson R. Improve your writing skills. Manchester: Clifton Press; 1995.


How to Reference APA Style

How to reference Vancouver style

You can find the links to Swansea University's Vancouver referencing guides below:

How to use EndNote



Avoiding plagiarism

Skills for learning, skills for life